Monday, March 30, 2020
Often, writers find trouble expressing themselves in certain ways, so in this absence, they replace it with literary devices. The literary devices can range from similes, allusions, metaphors, and even the atmosphere. In Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton, the atmosphere is not limited to the weather, but also in the environment f the main characters household. Being described as cold and frosty, the environment plays a vital part in the plot line, and in the characters actions. As most stories, Ethan Frome starts out by setting up the environment. Winter shut down on Starkfield, and the village lay under a sheet of snow perpetually renewed from the pale skies, is a quote that right off the bat describes winter in Starkfield, Massachusetts, where the story takes place (Wharton 6). Winter and snow is often used when feelings of happiness may need to be expressed, but in this story, nd as one can see from the quote above, winter is a dread. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton: Environment Plays or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page With utilizing words such as shut down and pale, Wharton establishes the thought of winter not being welcomed in Starkfield, Massachusetts (Wharton 6). The quote l had been struck by the contrast between the vitality of the climate and the deadness of the community connects the attitude of the community to the weather (Wharton 6). When winter is afoot in Starkfield, so is the depressing atmosphere the citizens of the town give off. The effect of winter seems to enhance the dreadfulness of certain characters state of inds as well. For example, Ethan and Zeena Frome, and Mattie Silver allow for winter to suffocate happiness from their household. The environment of the house is also present from the beginning of the story. On page 13, the narrator describes the house with the harsh truth; a flash of watery sunlight exposed the house on the slope above us in all its plaintive ugliness. While the house is ugly, it is also lacking a distinctive, architecture feature that preludes to foreshadowing. It is lacking the L, which is a roof in a shape of an L that connects eparate rooms of the house together. Lacking this piece of the building, results in the house giving Offa presence of coldness. The foreshadow that can come from this, is the fact that the environment inside the house is missing something that starts with an L; love. Love, which connects all kinds of people together, is not present in the household. Since it is not present, the environment of the household takes on the presence of the building; coldness. The atmosphere within the house is further isolated due to Ethans and his wife, Zeenas, actions. Only getting married because Ethan was atraid to be on his own, their relationship is lacking in several fields. When Zeena was struck with her numerous illnesses, they called for Mattie Silver, Zeenas cousin, to come and help with the housework. As soon as she came into the house, Ethan immediately became aware of the change she brought with her. He noted that the coming to his house of a bit of hopeful young life was like the lighting of a fire on a cold hearth (Wharton 22). Mattie, with her beauty and warm presence affects the environment of the ousehold in a way that Zeena never could. Because of this, Ethan found himself becoming attracted to her, resulting in conflict with his wife. While Ethans and Matties relationship is still budding, Zeena decides to leave the house for a night to go to another town to see a doctor. Immediately after she leaves, the environment of the house is uplifted. Ethans thoughts were positive as well; he had a confused sense of being in another world, where all was warmth and harmony (Wharton 57). With Zeena being absent from the house, Mattie filled her lace by taking on the role of being Ethans wife. Ethan realizes all that he missing out on with Zeena, and starts to dream about a whole new life, where Mattie is his wife, and the atmosphere in the household is forever warm and cheerful. He remarks upon the event by thinking their evening together had given him a vision of what life at her side might be, and he was glad now that he had done nothing to trouble the sweetness of the picture (Wharton 64). Thoughts such as these never occur about Zeena, and they disappear when she returns, as well as the warmth of the nvironment in the house. As soon as Zeena sets foot inside the house, all of the characters start to tiptoe around the elephant in the room. But that did not last long, for as soon as Zeena discovered that her wedding dish was broken, all hell broke loose. With the decision to send Mattie away, Zeena thought she won the battle. She did not, for instead of heading on the train home, Ethan and Mattie decided to attempt suicide, for they realized they would never be together. After nearly escaping death, the idea of sending Mattie away was never brought up again. Since this issue was never dealt with properly, the conflict between all the characters is still present. Also, the environment is as hostile as ever. A minor character sums up the atmosphere of the household years after the suicide attempt by saying and the way they are now, I dont sees theres much difference between the Fromes up at the farm and the Fromes down in the graveyard (Wharton 117). The environment of the house did not improve, but only got worse, since Mattie came. Overall, Ethans situation can represent a morality error; not confronting ones inner feelings. When one denies themselves that Joy, conflicts erupts. Because Ethan did not confront his true feelings, the atmosphere of not only the house, but of the story itself is eternally frosty, much like the weather of the Starkfield. The environment of the story also affects the actions of the characters to the point of self- destruction, literally. Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton, portrays a conflict that is ever present for all societies, with results that establish a lesson well learned. Wharton, Edith. Ethan Frome and Related Readings. Evanson: McDougal Littell Inc. , 1997. print.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Book Review: If Beale Street Could Talk James Baldwin was born on August 2, 1924. His first novel, Go Tell it on the Mountain, received good reviews, but more importantly, it opened a new voice in literature. Baldwin stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Mountain is the book I had to write if I was ever going to write anything else.Ã¢â¬ The appearance of his next novel in 1963, The Fire Next Time, appeared when the civil rights movement was expanding in the South. This story consisted of AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to face their own history. If Beale Street Could Talk is controversial in many ways, but when judging its value in a classroom setting, it proves to be essential. James Baldwin addresses issues that are only age-appropriate for mature students in high school, but probably more beneficial for the college student. Most of the criticism that this book received is from its graphic description of racism, and its graphic language and sexual display. Although there are many reasons and qualities that this book should receive praise. For instance Beale Street shows strong qualities of honesty, family, survival, and love. This book has an important message that could be taught to students who are also facing racism or to educate the students who are not so familiar with the issue of racism. These qualities include showing insight, understanding, and awareness of racism in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, although the subject of racism has come a long way since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, it still has a long way to go. Beale Street is based on a young black couple who lives in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s in the ghetto of New York. Since Fonny and Tish were little, they grew up together and their relationship began to develop into more than just friendship. As they are developing their relationship, they see how cruel and unjust society is against blacks. The police arrest Fonny for rape on a night that he never left his apartment. The victim identifies Fonny in a line-up, but he ... Free Essays on If Beale Street Could Talk Free Essays on If Beale Street Could Talk Book Review: If Beale Street Could Talk James Baldwin was born on August 2, 1924. His first novel, Go Tell it on the Mountain, received good reviews, but more importantly, it opened a new voice in literature. Baldwin stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Mountain is the book I had to write if I was ever going to write anything else.Ã¢â¬ The appearance of his next novel in 1963, The Fire Next Time, appeared when the civil rights movement was expanding in the South. This story consisted of AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to face their own history. If Beale Street Could Talk is controversial in many ways, but when judging its value in a classroom setting, it proves to be essential. James Baldwin addresses issues that are only age-appropriate for mature students in high school, but probably more beneficial for the college student. Most of the criticism that this book received is from its graphic description of racism, and its graphic language and sexual display. Although there are many reasons and qualities that this book should receive praise. For instance Beale Street shows strong qualities of honesty, family, survival, and love. This book has an important message that could be taught to students who are also facing racism or to educate the students who are not so familiar with the issue of racism. These qualities include showing insight, understanding, and awareness of racism in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, although the subject of racism has come a long way since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, it still has a long way to go. Beale Street is based on a young black couple who lives in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s in the ghetto of New York. Since Fonny and Tish were little, they grew up together and their relationship began to develop into more than just friendship. As they are developing their relationship, they see how cruel and unjust society is against blacks. The police arrest Fonny for rape on a night that he never left his apartment. The victim identifies Fonny in a line-up, but he ...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Corporate Code of Conduct - Essay Example The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is one of the world's largest information technology corporations and is worldwide known for its printers and personal computers. Headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States, it has a global presence in the fields of computing, printing, and digital imaging, and also provides software and services. Hewlett Packard has reached the US$91.7 billion mark in annual revenue just this 2006. Hewlett Packard is now facing off and accelerating its business weapons to topple the higher ranked competitor called with IBM in order to be acknowledged as one of the best in the realm of world's largest technology vendor in terms of sales. Hewlett Packard has finally, after many years of painstaking hard work, has been recognized as the No. 1 ranked in terms of worldwide personal computer shipments from its arch rival Dell. Environment. Hewlett Packard has been implementing the best practices in its environment. The company is doing this environmental Code of Conduct by addressing its environmental footprint through by its increased introduction of computer recycling programs and partnerships. The company has good disclosure reporting standard and it produces an environmental report in compliance with the Global Reporting Initiative, a global framework for reporting. Hewlett Packard has a robust Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) management system which is patterned on recognized international models like the ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001. The company has strong performance, as evidenced by the continuously increasing energy efficiency of HP laptops. HP voluntarily participates in beyond-compliance programs including the Energy Star and the PFC Emissions Reduction Partnership. Hewlett Packard has been named as a potentially responsible partner in 15 Superfund remediation sites. Workplace. Hewlett Packard implements the best practices in its company workplace area. The company is energetically imposing many relevant policies and programs in diversity, labor relations and safety, It has put into actuality its workplace safety program that which also includes ergonomics and job-specific training. Like it competing computer companies, Hewlett Packard is working to reduce and even eliminate work conditions throughout the company's supply chain. Hewlett Packard is expecting its suppliers to have a spotless record in terms labor practices and occupational health and safety. Hewlett Packard has launched the Supply Chain Social and Environmental Responsibility Program to address in order to comply with this issue. Hewlett Packard's diversity programs includes many affinity groups, outreach efforts and domestic partner benefits. Aside from offering a comprehensive workplace safety program, Hewlett Packard's risk-reduction activities includes personal communication an d follow-up with employees. Hewlett Packard's human rights and labor policy includes supporting international human rights and recognition of the rights of employees to organize into labor unions if they choose to do so. As of the present and it is expected to continue, there is no incidence of labor unrest, safety violations, or discrimination of employees and other affected persons. Hewlett Packard has currently incorporated computer programs so that its products are designed to allow full access by more persons
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
An exploration into the perspectives of working mothers on their young children's social life - Dissertation Example Working mothers face the dual challenging of providing economic support and taking care of the needs of their children. Due to this challenging situation, many working mothers tend to adopt various perspectives depending on their individual situation and priorities. One category that often gets neglected among necessities such as food and education is the influence of social life in the social development of young children. This study tries to explore and find out the various perspectives that working mothers have with regard to the social life of their young children. The study is based on qualitative interviews conducted for different individuals such as working mothers, non-working mothers, children and fathers. It was found that these different categories adopted different perspectives when it came to social life. Purpose and Aims The goal of this study is to understand the way in which being employed changes the perspective of working motherÃ¢â¬â¢s towards the social life and social development of their children. The aim is to focus on mothers with young children to explore if there are differences in perspectives between working and non-working mothers. Most researchers who have explored the topic of employed women and effects on children have focussed mostly on the challenges and work life balance. In addition, the research had focus on overall development, but not on social development exclusively. The impact of social development because of the mothers being employed is a topic that has not been explored fully. This research aims to fill up the gap to provide more insights and understanding of the subject. Social life among young children often takes a backseat because a huge amount of the working motherÃ¢â¬â¢s time is taken away in catering to the basic necessities such as good food, high quality education and co-curricular activities. As social development is essential in young children, it is important to understand if the involvement of the mot her in social activities proves to be an influence in the way their social life shapes up. In the modern day society, the social development of an individual is as important as any other aspects of development. The way in which any human being behaves in a social set up gets majorly influenced by the social life they encounter during the period when they were young. In such a situation, the perspectives that the mothers have regarding the social life of their young children become important. The concepts of social developed and the influence of mother in this developmental aspect is looked at in a detailed manner in this research. In this research, the category of working mothers refers to mothers who are working full time in an organization and hence, who spend the major part of the day outside the house and away from the children. The category of young children is narrowed down to children who are between the ages of 7 Ã¢â¬â 14. The research aims to identify the different persp ectives as well as the reasons as to which the working mothers have adopted various perspectives. New mothers who are concerned about the social development of their children can benefit from this research. In addition, child psychologists and counsellors also can understand the various perspectives and the influence that each of these perspectives have on the social life of the children. The specific research questions are to find out the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Early Stage Of Dementia Dementia is a common disease in the geriatric population but can also be noticed in any stage of adulthood. In a study issued by European researchers, it is estimated that about 35 million people have dementia worldwide. It is called a syndrome because it involves a serious of signs and symptoms. It is a non-specific clinical syndrome caused by a wide variety of diseases or injuries that affect the brain. Due to alarming increase of number of dementia cases in elderly people, need for extensive research on appropriate care for the elderly dementia patients arises. Nursing home is considered as embodied institution mean to provide constant care. In order to study if the nursing home is the most appropriate care environment for older person diagnosed with dementia, an extensive literature search was performed in accordance to Oxford Brookes style. 10 articles were obtained as a result of extensive literature search after incorporating inclusion and exclusion criterion arising due to the personal need. The results are categorised in to four main themes which are as follows: The facilities and care available at a nursing home. Is multidisciplinary approach essential? Care received in nursing home vs. home care. Impact of elderly people joining nursing home at an early stage. Importance of nursing home in elderly patients in the early stage of dementia After applying CASP tool to all the articles, Careful analysis was done to draw the discussion. Basing on the discussion, nursing home is considered as the most appropriate care environment for elderly patient diagnosed with dementia. Recommendations are proposed on the basis of conclusions and implications of my research in the future are mentioned. INTRODUCTION: Dementia: Dementia is defined as a medical condition which is characterised by loss of cognitive ability which is caused either due to normal aging or any kind of sudden impairment (Berrios, 1987). It is also described as non specific illness causing set of symptoms affecting memory, language, attention and problem solving regions of the cognitive region of the brain (Calleo and Stanley, 2008). Dementia could be either static, caused due to injury of the brain affecting the cognitive area or progressive (slowly progressive and rapidly progressive) resulting in damage of the brain. Although the disease is seen commonly in elderly patients, it occurs at every stage of adulthood (Berrios, 1987).During initial stages of dementia; all the higher mental functions are affected leading to confusion, forgetfulness leading to gradual progression (Gleason, 2003). In aged people, the experience of dementia is worse due to pain and ill health. These symptoms lead to problems associated with ambulation, mood swings, depression, disturbances in sleep pattern, decreased appetite and slowness in activity (Gleason, 2003). Caring People suffering from dementia: During the initial symptoms, the patient is taken care by the family members and relatives. They ensure the patient that the process is normal with aging which makes their lifestyle a bit easy (Algase, 1996). A person suffering from dementia is shifted to a nursing home due to unavoidable circumstances like absence of carers, hectic life schedule and excessive progression of disease, expensive treatment (Weinberger et al., 1993). Nursing home is defined as a place of residence for patients needing continuous support. Nursing home is chosen in many circumstances as mentioned by Weinberger and coworkers. According to him, the need of skilled nursing care, physical intervention and close understanding of the patient play an important role. Along with continuous care, patients in countries like Ireland, United Kingdom and Wales also receive assistance from physical, occupational, speech therapists, social workers, psychiatrists, psychologists to look after the necessities (Kristine et al., 2002). Emergency management is also provided as an essential part of treatment which forms an added advantage. The most important responsibility of the nursing home is elderly care which provides the patients with all the basic services like assistance in living, day care and long term care (Kristine et al., 2002). The Nursing home acts as a caring unit for many dementia patients at various stages of dementia. The quality of nursing home varies and is most important variable in determining efficiency (Kristine et al., 2002).The qualification, knowledge and responsibility of the carers or staff in charge and presence of physicians to monitor health condition of the patient play an important role (Kristine et al., 2002). Although efficiency of care is expected, there are many disadvantages associated with the nursing homes. The patient initially shows signs of disagreement to shift to a nursing home but may agree when explained. The chances of forgetfulness in these issues are also more which could cause agitation after joining (Algase, 1996). The initial adjustment of the patient towards the new atmosphere may create more confusion and deteriorate the health condition which is a major drawback (Steele et al, 1990). The cost of the nursing home and nursing staff is unaffordable by many of the patients which worsen the situation (Kristine et al., 2002). The extent of care and the support of family members play a vital part in influencing treatment. In particular situations like impaired mobility and disability or in cases where elder people are declared as mentally and physically incompetent, care in the nursing home remains as the best factor to increase longetivity of the patients (Steele et al, 199 0). The purpose of this paper is to review various national, International scientific journals and articles which seek to address on Appropriate care of elderly patients diagnosed with early stage of dementia. The intention of the present paper is to provide a suitable answer to the research question; Is the nursing home an appropriate environment for an older adult diagnosed with early stage dementia? To answer the question extensive study on literature search and study was performed. The literature review covered numerous journals, policies, and papers which examined the issues on care provided to the elderly patients in early stage of dementia. The reviews include thorough analysis of elderly dementia patients, forms of care available to them and to examine the best suitable care to improve the health condition of these patients. The present research will evaluate available data on nursing home as perfect environment for caring these kinds of patients. The review elaborates on the exp ectations of the patients and relatives towards care and the attempt of health professionals to live up to the expectations of them. The review also highlights the difference between care obtained in the home and a typical nursing home. It throws light on advantages and disadvantages of care given in nursing homes and these factors are considered later to draw conclusions on the most appropriate environment to care for elderly dementia patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the research paper is to investigate the literature on qualitative, quantitative and mixed experimental approaches on proper care of elderly patients. These inferences would form the basis for understanding if the nursing home is the most appropriate place for caring dementia patients. METHODOLOGY: In order to concentrate on the objectives of the study, extensive literature exploration was performed. AÃ literature reviewÃ is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic (Aveyard, 2007). Literature review was considered as a best source of research methodology because of time constraint and lack of ethical considerations to perform primary research. Literature review focuses on primary research done in various clinical circumstances. The other advantage is possibility of comparative study among various qualitative, quantitative and mixed primary researches across the world (Aveyard, 2007). During my study on the available literature, various situations experienced by dementia patients in nursing homes were studied. Ideas about circumstances experienced by the elderly patients in nursing homes were identified. Some of the papers focus on style of practice in nursing home and some of them focus on the attitude of patients towards nursing care. There were many controversies identified according to different perspectives of authors. Through these studies, an idea about the best suitable place of care for elderly patients at early stage of dementia could be conveyed. Research process: The process of research involved organized and vigilant consideration of literature suitable for my research work. The PICO model to formulate a question as suggested by Johnson and Fineout (2005) and by Stone 2002 cited in Gerrish and Lacey, 2010 is shown in the appendix 1 of the present research work. The model gives a simpler representation of the present research work. The four main terms which were used as a part of my literature search included dementia, elderly patients, quality care and nursing home. While using these terms care was taken to use them in combination rather than using singularly which would widen the research area of expertise. The list of search terms and the keyword identification table as suggested by Aveyard and Sharp (2009) is given in the appendix 2a and 2b respectively of the present investigation report. While considering the term dementia, early stage was emphasised in particular to refine my search. In addition to early stage, another term, elderly patients were also used to avoid searching among all the age groups. The term used for search looked like presented below: Dementia OR Alzheimer* OR memory loss and early stage The Boolean operator and was used in between these terms to ensure that research of literature included these three words in combination. In cases of excluding Boolean operator, the research resulted in articles including primary research of dementia at all stages among all age groups. The other important search term was concerned with the age of the patient which was mainly confined to elderly patients. The parameters used included Boolean operator and. The phrase was as follows: Older person OR Elderly OR older adult The other term used in conjugation in the research term included quality care. As quality care is considered as a wide term, a Boolean operator or and truncation symbol, star *was used to enable thorough research without exclusion of any important article or journal. The term entered was presented as below: Quality care * or appropriate care* or concern or caring* or wellbeing or well-being The use of Boolean operator and truncation symbol ensured non omission of important articles containing synonyms or differently presented words. The final term used in literature search was nursing home. Since my research focuses to study the most appropriate care environment for elderly dementia patients at early stage, this final term was used separately. The terms used in comparison included: Nursing home and care home* or residence* In this particular context, nursing home and care home are considered in comparison with residence of the patient. To enable the results to be confined to single term, the Boolean operator, or was used. The operator and was used to search results including both, nursing homes and care homes. The truncation symbol star was used to include articles with words displayed in alternative formats. The final research phrase for search looked as displayed below: Dementia OR Alzheimer* OR memory loss and early stage AND Older person OR Elderly OR older adult AND Quality care * or appropriate care* or concern or caring* or wellbeing or well-being AND Nursing home and care home* or residence* The immediate course of action was to use these terms in appropriate databases, I was guided by the university library manuals of the Oxford Brookes to consider CINAHL, BRITISH NURSING INDEX and MEDLINE as most relevant databases for search. CINAHL deals mainly in Nursing and health care in North America and Europe (Oxford Brookes University, 2009). British Nursing Index includes journals and articles based on care and community health pertaining to nursing and midwifery (Oxford Brookes University, 2009). Medline (Pubmed) is a collection of articles on medicine and nursing compiled by the intervention of National Library of Medicine USA (Oxford Brookes University, 2009). When the entire research phrase was posed in CINAHL, it retrieved 332 articles. When the same research phrase was typed in MEDLINE, it retrieved 75 articles. Further refinement was done in the search by using limiters 20000101-20101231 and retrieved 57 and 54 articles respectively. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used in particular to include time constraint which enabled to select most recent articles in the present decade. This included articles beginning from 2000 to present. Another inclusion criterion was the place which restricted the search results to the investigation done in the UK. The inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded 55 and 29 articles in CINAHL and MEDLINE respectively (The database searches and hits are shown in the appendix as suggested by Oxford Brookes University, 2011). To analyse the best suitable material to carry forward my research, four main principles as suggested by Aveyard (2007) were used, which included electronic searching, searching reference lists, hand searching of relevant journals and contacting authors directly. Out of all the suggested principles, the first three types were used as analytical tools in deciding best suitable literature. While choosing the primary research material, utmost care was taken to read through the abstract, findings and research methodology involved. This criterion was used for including or excluding the article for my research purpose. For some of the searches, hand searching was also used to obtain certain useful information on statistics in UK (shown in appendix 4). Due to time constraint in the research work, contacting health care professionals and conducting appropriate interviews could not be performed. As a result of the research methodology, 10 articles were found relevant to the context being investigated. The findings of the papers were thoroughly studied in order to answer the research question. Nursing home was considered to be an ideal place to take care of an elderly dementia patient in initial stage of the disorder. Critiquing my research methodology: There were many criticisms noticed following my research methodology. The main criticisms observed included the following: Inability to access all the journals in the databases as it required paid registration. Most of the websites which have excellent articles require a payment. I managed collect as many as articles I wanted to do answer this research question by login on Athens. It was beyond my finances to fund for all the articles. Lack of time to contact primary health care professionals to incorporate their views as a part of my research work. Lack of time to go through all the publications of a journal which resulted in referring to recent publications. Lack of much information in the title which would enable me to take appropriate decision regarding the content of article which resulted in reading the abstract in order to include article for research. Thus the major constraints of the present research article were identified to be cost and time. However, the freely available data obtained within the specified time were sufficient to draw conclusions to address the research question. For the entire 10 articles, critical appraisal skills programme, CASP (2006) tools were applied to draw the most relevant themes. The main themes identified are: The facilities and care available at a nursing home. Is multidisciplinary approach essential? Care received in nursing home vs. home care. Impact of elderly people joining nursing home at an early stage. Importance of nursing home in elderly patients in the early stage of dementia. RESULTS: The findings of the literature were categorized into main themes which made it easier to draw conclusions. The section depicts the investigation done in the 10 articles grouped together in accordance with the theme. Theme 1: The facilities and care available at a nursing home. Is multidisciplinary approach essential? Author, Year, Location Title Method/Study Results Comments 1. J. Cohen Mansfield and A.Parpura- Gill (2008). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. Practice Style in the nursing home: Dimensions for assessment and quality improvement The investigation examined the operation style of the nursing home in terms of two main components which are the staff and institutional components. The four domains which served as tool to test the staff conduct included knowledge, proficiency of practice style, flexibility and individual care and communication. The three domains used to test the conduct of institution include support of staff, availability of resources and administration of policies. As a result of the investigation, key features of institutional factors and staff were studied and monitored. Based upon the need and demand, the features requiring change and improvement were noted to ensure quality of care. The investigation emphasises on the practice styles of the staff in a nursing home with respect to care provided. The research journal gives an insight of vivid styles of care provided within a nursing home which ensures quality of care. It focuses on the knowledge, communication, flexibility and understanding of the staff in taking appropriate care in elderly persons It also gives a note on changing style of practice to cope up with increasing demand. 2. E.Finemma et al., 2005. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. The effect of integrated emotion-oriented care versus usual care on elderly persons with dementia in the nursing home and on nursing assistants: a randomized clinical trial The investigation is based on randomised clinical trial of two groups of elderly dementia patients, measuring the effects at baseline after specific period of time. The study involved 146 numbers of elderly dementia patients and 99 numbers of nursing staff. The study was performed in 16 psycho geriatric wards located in 14 nursing homes located in the Netherlands. The primary research studied the difference between the usual care and Integrated emotion-oriented care. The nursing assistants were tested on the basis of care given. Positive effects were reportedly noticed in patients experiencing mild to moderate dementia in terms of portraying emotional balance and positive self image. Results also showed that training nursing staff resulted in less stress reactions increasing quality and patience. The investigation revealed that emotion based care showed increase performance in early stage dementia patients when compared to normal usual care. However, It did not show any eye catching increase in quality with regard to people suffering from severe dementia. The study also focuses in reduction of stress in well trained nursing staff. 3. D. Challis et al., 2000. Journal article from Age and Ageing. Dependency in older people recently admitted to care homes. The investigation was based on the study conducted among 308 elderly people aged over 65 in one of the nursing care home located in North west England. The study was conducted within two weeks of admission for people intending to continue treatment for long term. Barthel score and Crichton royal behaviour rating scale were used to analyse the dependency rates. On the basis of Barthel rating scale and Crichton royal behaviour rating scale, 50% of the population were showed to be measured in the low dependency scale (13-20).Out of them, 31% in case of nursing home and 71% in case of residential care homes. On the whole, dementia patients are not assessed primarily before admission into the nursing home. Studies revealed that there was lack of pre admission assessment and diagnosis before joining patients. This study throws light on lack of communication about the pre assessment and diagnostic information about the patients to the health care and nursing staff. Effective targeting of institutionalised resources is focussed with high importance. 4. Leontjevas et al., 2009. American Journal of Alzheimers Disease Other Dementias Apathy and Depressive Mood Symptoms in Early onset dementia. As a part of epidemiological study, patients were studied for symptoms of apathy and depressive mood in early onset of dementia. Studies were performed in 63 nursing homes. MADRS, NPI and MMSE scales were used to detect rate of depression and MDS-RAI and GDS were used to detect severity of dementia. Studies revealed that depressive mood disorders and apathy are not observed severely in cases of patients suffering from early onset dementia .The results noted were accounted as 14% in ADL, 13% in GDS and 9% in MMSE. The investigation reveals that the symptoms of mood depression and apathy are seen extensively in patients suffering with early onset of dementia when compared to elderly patients revealing the severity of aggression. Theme 2: Quality of care received in nursing home vs. home care. Author, Year, Location Title Method/Study Results COMMENTS 1. Ehrlich et al., 2006. Home health care management and practice Caring for the Frail Elderly in the Home: A Multidisciplinary Approach The study depends upon short portable mental status questionnaire proposed by Pfeiffer in 1975 to identify dementia in geriatric population. The test confines to recall and memory of short term and long term orientation. Additionally, evidence based practice is applied to screen patients with the disease. The screening methodology enabled identification of patients suffering with dementia. Interdisciplinary approach is applied to propose a model for caring elderly people in home atmosphere. The primary research article focussed on the major disorders affecting the elderly person which forms the basis of joining a nursing home for care. The interdisciplinary approach gives an idea about caring older patient from the most necessary syndromes to enable ease of treatment in the house without intervention of nursing home. 2. Milke et al., 2006. Journal of Applied Gerontology Meeting the Needs in Continuing Care of Facility-Based Residents Diagnosed With Dementia: Comparison of Ratings by Families, Direct Care Staff, and Other Staff The data was collected by sampling method in five different places including Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Pennsylvania and New York. A total of 184 elderly residents diagnosed with dementia and 197 nursing staff participated in the study. Suitably tailored questionnaires were distributed across the five sites among non direct care staff, family group, direct care group, licensed practical nurses. The results of the investigation provided the comparison of care between families, direct caregivers, and other staff and volunteers. It also gave an idea about extent of care needed by the residents by each class. The results provide comparison of care in nursing home and the care in the patients own house. The research work emphasizes on individual care provided by various groups like families, friends, licensed medical nurses, volunteers and other professional care givers. It gives a relation of trust and cooperation between the patient and care givers. It focuses on various negative aspects of care in the patients house created due to stress, pressure and miscommunication. The article gives insight on the advantages of care provided by professional care givers over the family members in terms of knowledge, patience and quality. Theme 3: Impact of elderly people joining nursing home at an early stage. Author, Year, Location Title Method/Study Results COMMENTS Connor et al., 1991. Papers from British Medical Journal Does early intervention reduce the number of elderly people with Dementia admitted to institutions for long term care? The investigation utilised seven general practice areas located in Cambridge in the form of controlled clinical trials. 2885 subjects aged over 75 diagnosed with dementia were involved. 159 subjects in the group were diagnosed with initial stage dementia, 86 of them required extra support and 73 of the subjects had access to usual services and acted as control. The research revealed that there was no direct contribution of early intervention to long term admission of patients in the nursing home. 9 out of 14 subjects who were living at home without support joined nursing home due to the extended facilities available. The investigation focussed on screening procedures of dementia to identify level of severity of the disorder in the patients. In certain patients, the severity is high requiring instant admission into nursing home and in some cases, support by family members would be sufficient. Evidences also record that early intervention of dementia would decrease the risk of severity in the disease. Theme 4: Importance of nursing home in elderly patients in the early stage of dementia. Author, Year, Location Title Method/Study Results COMMENTS 1. Voyer et al., 2005 Clinical effectiveness in nursing 2. Dettmore et al., 2009 Geriatric nursing Characteristics of institutionalized older patients with delirium newly admitted to an acute care hospital Aggression in Persons with Dementia: Use of Nursing Theory to Guide Clinical Practice The investigation involves cross sectional secondary analysis study of old patients in nursing homes and other health care units. Confusion assessment method was used to test patients with delirium upon their admission. The research work utilizes Need-driven Dementia- compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression in the individuals undergoing constant core in a nursing home. In the total of 104 patients suffering from cognitive impairment, 68% people were recorded to possess delirium. The MMSE scale was used to screen patients to test the presence of delirium. The major symptoms which were observed in all the patients were bowel incontinence, illness. The most uncommon symptom observed was hearing impairment which occurred rarely. Clinical management algorithm was framed in accordance with the NDB model to study the behavior of aggressive patients and frame a theory to take care of the patients in aggressive moods and to avoid repetition of the syndrome. The research emphasizes on the importance of nursing homes in providing care and offer screening of the disorder. The severity of cognitive impairment doesnt influence the preventive nursing interventions. Independent of the level of impairment, nursing care portrays important feature in improving the quality of patients requiring close care. The patients suffering with dementia undergo frequent episodes of aggressive beahvior making care by professional care givers difficult. The paper focusses on the proposal of clinical management algorithm which is based on ndb model to manage certain aggressive episodes of the patient. 3. Holliday-Welsch et al., 2009 Geriatric nursing Massage in the Management of Agitation in Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment The study was performed using subjects who are susceptible to agitation and aggrieve mood by nursing staff. The susceptible patients were selected by the use of minimum data set (MDS) report. The data collection was done during 3 days considered as base line, then the intervention followed up to another 6 days continued by follow up for the next few days. it was observed that Subjects agitation was lower during the intervention of massage Than at baseline and remains still low at follow-up. Wandering, verbally agitated, physically agitated and care resistance were proved to be decreased upon intervention of massage. In this study, the five aspects of agitation which are wandering, verbal agitation, physical agitation, abusiveness, socially inappropriate agitation, disruptive aggressiveness. At each of the observation, agitation was scored for five times. Massage is one of the non pharmacological interventions in these patients suffering from agitation. This could be used as an effective tool by nursing staff in eliciting quality care DISCUSSION: All the themes identified in the research play a suitable role in delivering the conclusion to provide a suitable answer for my research question. The themes are arranged sequentially to ultimately conclude upon appropriate care for elderly dementia patients at early stage of the disorder. Each of the 10 articles selected, carries an important examination which forms the basis for future implications in the nursing staff. The first theme based in my results is facilities and care available in nursing homes using a multidisciplinary approach. This particular theme identifies the importance of nursing home as an institutionalised care centre to exhibit support and care to all kinds of dementia patients. The study proposed by J. Cohen Mansfield and A.Parpura- Gill (2008) suggests the nomenclature involved in nursing homes including the care provided by the nursing staff. The paper focuses on the improvement of these facilities to improvise style of nursing home which ultimately determines the quality. He regards flexibility, knowledge, communication as an essential factor for influencing care by nursing professionals. Along with characteristics of the staff, he also focuses on certain institutional factors which serve as tool of improvement (Beck et al., 1999). The most important institutional factors include timing of care, alternatives of care, resident and family involvement (Porras, 1987; Kanter, 199 3). The frame work which is important for a nursing home is changed regularly on the basis of organizational and staffs needs to ensure implementing better system for staff especially in case of dementia, where there is a need of care specialist to monitor a group of care providers (Noelker and Harel, 2001). The investigation based by on the study of e. Finnema et al., 2005 portrays the role of emotion oriented care in the patients suffering from mild to moderate dementia in nursing homes. He describes the role of emotional oriented care in influencing body adaptation and balance of the dementia patient seen in early stages (Finnema et al., 2000). General health condition was also proved to improve especially in c
Sunday, January 19, 2020
INTRO When people encounter conflict their true nature is often the force behind their actions. Conflicts can vary from personal to group and be fairly tedious and inconsequential or they can be life threatening situations. Individuals will display different reactions to this conflict depending on their true nature. Some embrace the conflict and it enables them to show their long held values and morals whereas others are put into a position where they must avoid showing there true self in order to survive. People reveal long held values and what really matters to them when they are under pressure. Our true motives are displayed when we encounter conflict. In the movie, paradise road Mrs Tippler has a highly negative response to conflict, she becomes critical and pessimistic. She grows increasinglyÃ spiteful and resentful, making racial tensions worse and accusing the Dutch women of being dishonest. She accuses Adrienna of endangering lives with the vocal orchestra and becomes suspicious of everyone saying Ã¢â¬Å"What about that Jew doctor? What about that one making goo goo eyes at that Japanese guard all the timeÃ¢â¬ . Ms tippler seemed like a reasonable person at the beginning of the movie but as tension and pressure was put upon her and the group her nastier values where exposed. Adrienne emerges as a natural leader in the prison camp. Her response to conflict is to maintain her dignity. Another character, Adrienne is placed in a compromising position when sheÃ¢â¬â¢s asked if the orchestra will perform a Japanese folk-song for Colonel Hirota. She refuses, risking severe punishment. In a modern day example sporting great tiger woods was involved in many types of conflict with his partner at time and also with the media. His true ethics where shown as it was reveled that he had been a serial cheater and had told many lies, which inevitably was the reason for him being caught, if he had not engaged in any form of conflict though media speculation or of that with his wife who he really is would never have been exposed. In times of conflict people may even surprise themselves, and discover new characteristics they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know they had. Under pressure a personÃ¢â¬â¢s true character is often revealed. Some people will remain composed under pressure and remain in control of the situation while others will lose control of their emotions and the situation very quickly. Recently a soldier called Trooper Finney was awarded the George Cross for rescuing an injured colleague following during the war in Iraq. He was driving a tank when they were attacked by warplanes, his colleagues ran away to shelter but he heard his fellow soldier Ã¢â¬â the tank gunner, screaming, but he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get to him properly in the tank. Finney pulled his gunner out and gave him first aid underneath the tank- returned to the burning vehicle to radio for help and kept the other soldier alive until assistance came. Trooper Finney was 19 and had been in the Army for less than a year. He would not have had many life threatening experiences and may not have known what he was capable of until under immense pressure in the middle of a deadly conflict. His real identity came out and his real character was revealed when he risked his life for someone else and stayed calm and cool under attack. MargaretÃ DrummondÃ¢â¬â¢s character in Paradise Road was also an unlikely hero, she was humble, sweet and a Christian missionary she probably didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realise she could survive such a torturous ordeal as the prison camp but she finds Ã¢â¬Å"The will to survive is strong, stronger than anything.Ã¢â¬ At times people need to behave in ways that are out of character in order to survive. This is not always an accurate representation of who they are. Stressed and deprived, some of the women in Paradise Road find themselves placed in a morally and politically compromised situation when confronted with the choice as to whether to remain at the Japanese Ã¢â¬ËofficersÃ¢â¬â¢ clubÃ¢â¬â¢, providing sex in return for food and comfort, or to return to the camp. Inner conflict is also encountered by the women who are often pushed to breaking point by the cruelty of the Japanese soldiers, such as when they are forced to witness the injustice of WingÃ¢â¬â¢s execution in silence. Normally in a situation where the women where not faced with the threat of death they might have stepped in but with conflicting interests of survival and that to help others stopped them from expressing their desired actions. In our political environment the sense of conflict can be strong, especially near elect ion time. Many politicians have to tow the party line and state that they are opposed to things like gay marriage or abortion, because that is what their political party policy is. They need to do this in order to survive politically in their elected positions. They often turn out not to be personally opposed to those things, but the pressure of conflicting parties vying for peoples votes forces them to act in a role which may be out of character. Kevin Rudd is now saying he is not personally against gay marriage, even though he headed a government who opposed to it. In some circumstances morals and values are compromised in order to survive in the given environment, thus their actions and perceived values may not be a true representation of who they really are. CONCLUSION Conflicting interests in the eyes of the individual is often the reason behind how and why they act in certain ways. In situations of conflict some welcome the situation and show their true self while others act out of fear and desperation either inadvertently revealing themselves or deliberatelyÃ choosing survival over being themselves.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Ã¯Â»Â¿The similarities or and differences of studying in private university and government university Essay
?The similarities or and differences of studying in private university and government university A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is a corporation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. Actually, University was divided into two which are state university and private university. Public or state universities operate in whole or in part on state or federal funds. This means all students regardless of race, religion and gender. Conversely, private institutions may make exemptions, such as women-only campuses, or men-only, and religious schools. There are similarity and contrast of state university and the private university; the similarity of state university and private university is both universities require the student to have a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree but both of them also have differences which are the cost for student, the program available and the standard score for studentÃ¢â¬â¢s success. The first similarity of state university and private university is both universities require the student to have a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. Actually, a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree is the first degree a student can receive in his or her academic career, with the exception of the associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. The bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree is sometimes awarded after learning an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, though it is often the first degree that is gotten. Whether or not an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree can be gotten first depends upon the area of study. Both of the universities have the same standard to get bachelor degree. Not only that, state university and private university also have the differences which are the cost that must be paid by the student, the program available and the standard of scoring for student success. The first difference is the cost that must be paid by students. Many people assume a public college is cheaper than a private college because of tuition fees are reduced for state residents. But the posted Ã¢â¬Å"sticker priceÃ¢â¬ of a private college is rarely the real price. If a private college strongly appeals to you, consider waiting for its financial aid offer before making a final decision. More often than not, private colleges offer the scholarships and grants that significantly cut your actual cost, even bringing it close to the cost of a public college. Public college cost gets trickier for out-of-state students. Public colleges are largely supported by state taxes. This means that put-of-state students. Whose families have not paid these taxes; usually owe higher tuition than in-state students. Paying out-of-state tuition often put the cost on a par with the cost of private colleges. The second difference is programs availability. Many private universities do not offer as wide a range of classes and major options as public schools do. If you are looking for a specific major, it will often be harder to find a private school that offers that option and once you do find that university, it may be out of state and therefore out of budget. On the other hand, large public universities are often able to offer a wider range of subjects for you to study as well as more teachers to cover them. And the last difference is the standard of scoring for students test. Actually, both universities are not the same in scoring for studentÃ¢â¬â¢s success. For example, the students are learning the same material and taking the same tests, they are getting the different score because the both of the universities have different grade of the test. Actually, what really differs between the two universities is the school atmosphere in which the student learns the material. The students result formed through their school experiences are usually dramatically different. Based on this explanation above, state university and private university have several similarities and differences. The similarity is both universities require the student to have a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. And the differences from both of them are the cost for student, the programs available and the standard score for student success. In my conclusion, the effect from the several similarities and differences are to help the students to decrease their problems and to make their learning process joyful. For recommendation, this explanation is about choice and initiative on the parts of the students and the lectures.